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碳收集领导人论坛第四届部长级会议万钢部长发言翻译探讨
稿件来源:交流中心 翻译与礼宾处      

    新闻链接:碳收集领导人论坛第四届部长级会议在北京召开

    1. 原文:(中国政府不断加大CCUS技术的研发与示范投入力度。)国家投入支持范围从侧重单一环节的技术研究和中试,迈向支持工业规模的全流程技术示范,从侧重局部的CO2封存潜力评估,扩大到覆盖全国范围的封存潜力调查。 

    译文:The government has shifted its focus from the technological research and pilot test of single stages across the CCUS chain to industrial-scale, integrated demonstrations, from the characterization of CO2 storage potential of particular sites to the assessment of storage capacity nationwide. 

    说明:这里涉及一个概念,“大规模全流程示范”(large-scale, integrated CCS projects(LSIPs)),CSLF政策组17 August 2011 发布的Papers for Ministerial Conference 对这个概念进行了解释:(LSIPs) are projects which involve all stages of the CCS chain (capture, transport and storage of CO2) and involve the capture and storage of at least 800, 000 tonnes a year of CO2 for coal-fired power generation facilities and at least 400,000 tonnes a year of CO2 for all other industries. 

    2. 原文: (尽管起步较晚,中国在碳捕集、利用与封存技术方面取得了长足进步。)在上海建成了10万吨级燃煤电厂捕集示范,获得了与电厂热系统集成的宝贵经验;在吉林油田连续多年开展提高采收率试验,充分验证了中国低渗油田采用CO2驱油技术的适宜性;在河北成功开展了微藻固定CO2制生物柴油中试,探索了CO2能源化利用的技术方向;在内蒙古开展的10万吨级咸水层封存示范已开始稳定注气,将为中国咸水层封存CO2积累宝贵工程数据和经验。 

    译文:The 100,000-ton-CO2-capture-capacity-per-year demonstration project at a coal-fired power plant in Shanghai has provided valuable experience for CCUS’s integration with the heat system of power plants. The years’ experiment in Jilin oilfield fully proves the viability of the use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in low-permeability oilfields. The successful pilot of using microalgae for CO2 capture and biodiesel production in Hebei province offers a new option for CO2 utilization. The Inner Mongolia-based demonstration project, with an annual 100,000-ton CO2 storage capacity, has already started steady injection of CO2 into deep saline formations, offering useful data and experience for similar projects in China. 

    说明:文中两次出现的“10万吨级”均指示范项目的年二氧化碳捕集/封存能力为10万吨。文中“CO2驱油”,又叫强化驱油,该技术通过将二氧化碳注入地下,从而达到提高石油采收率(EOR)的目的。该词本身在英语中有一个对应词汇叫CO2 flooding,但是此处只需用EOR大家即可明白有一个CO2 flooding的过程。关于“CO2能源化利用”,我们会经常看到“二氧化碳的资源化利用”这样一个提法,两者实际上是同一个概念。CO2既然可以利用,当然是作为资源进行利用,否则的话,根本谈不上利用。所以,将其译为CO2 utilization即可,无需画蛇添足说成“use CO2 as an energy source/resources”。 “在内蒙古开展的10万吨级咸水层封存示范已开始稳定注气”一句中的“注气”指的是将二氧化碳气体注入咸水层,从而达到封存的目的,而不是泛泛地指gas(另外,gas还可指汽油)。 

    3. 原文:从全球CCUS技术的总体发展进程来看,该技术仍处于研发和早期系统示范阶段,尚存在高成本、高能耗和长期安全性、可靠性待验证等突出问题。如何有效地解决这些问题,提升技术成熟度,是我们共同面临的挑战。 

    译文:Globally, CCUS remains in its early RD&D stage, and still faces many problems such as high cost, high energy penalty and uncertainty over its long-term safety and reliability. How to effectively address these problems and improve its technical readiness is a common challenge for us all. 

    说明:“研究、开发和示范”即research, development and demonstration (RD&D)。文中提到CCUS面临的三个问题之一“高能耗”是energy penalty。关于该词,Papers for Ministerial Conference文件中提到: Emerging economies are also wary of the unique contradiction whereby CCS requires a large incremental capital cost to fit onto a fossil fuel-based power plant, but then reduces its electricity output and significantly affect its efficiency because it uses additional fuel and electricity to capture and store CO2 (energy penalty). 指虽然CCUS捕集和封存二氧化碳,从而达到减少二氧化碳的目的,但捕集和封存二氧化碳本身又需要消耗能源,因此energy penalty就是指在采用CCUS技术过程中会产生额外的能源消耗。此处中文就是这个意思。当然用“energy consumption”大家也能明白,但却不如energy penalty到位。“技术成熟度”Wikipedia的解释:Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is a measure used by some United States government agencies and many of the world’s major companies (and agencies) to assess the maturity of evolving technologies (materials, components, devices, etc.) prior to incorporating that technology into a system or subsystem. Generally speaking, when a new technology is first invented or conceptualized, it is not suitable for immediate application. Instead, new technologies are usually subjected to experimentation, refinement, and increasingly realistic testing. Once the technology is sufficiently proven, it can be incorporated into a system/subsystem.就是说一项技术是否成熟,取决于这项技术距离应用还有多远的距离,是否能够马上使用。所以“成熟的技术”可以译为mature technology,但也可以用ready-to-use technology这一说法。 

    4. 原文:(成立8年以来,碳收集领导人论坛在推动CCUS技术发展方面已经获得了巨大的成功,)CCUS技术从以前少数专家口中的专业术语,演变为最高领袖案头的重要文件,从纯粹的技术概念演变成分布于美、欧、亚等大洲的众多工业规模技术试点示范,大规模的全流程商业化示范似乎已不再像海市蜃楼那样虚无缥缈。 

    译文:(Thanks to the efforts of CSLF,)CCUS has evolved from a professional jargon spoken by just a few experts into an important agenda item for top leaders of governments around the world. It has turned from a purely technical concept into industrial-scale demonstration projects diversely distributed around the world, making large-scale, integrated commercial demonstration no longer an illusive dream. 

    CSLF相关词汇: 
    
    碳捕集、利用和封存CCUS 
    CSLF宪章 CSLF Charter 
    商业化应用commercial deployment 
    研发、示范RD&D 
    研发、示范、推广部署RD&DD 
    额外能源消耗energy penalty 
    煤制油coal-to-liquid 
    技术的经济性 economics of CCS technology 
    富氧燃烧oxyfuel combustion 
    燃烧后post-combustion 
    燃烧前pre-combustion 
    德国黑泵电站项目Schwarze Pumpe 
    褐煤发电厂lignite-fired power plant 
    烟气flue gas 
    冷氨吸收法chilled ammonia process 
    高级胺吸收法advanced amine process 
    吸收塔absorber 
    中欧近零排放发电项目Near Zero Emissions Coal (NZEC) 
    清洁能源部长级会议CEM 
    全球碳捕获封存研究院GCCSI 
    国际能源署IEA 
    主要经济体能源安全与气候变化论坛MEF 
    世界银行WB 
    亚洲开发银行ADB 
    八国峰会G8 
    二十国峰会G20 
    亚太地区清洁发展和气候伙伴计划APP 
    第四代核能系统国际论坛GIF 
    国际热核聚变实验堆ITER 
    国际氢能经济和燃料电池伙伴计划IPHE 
    国际原子能机构IAEA 
    能源研究技术委员会CERT

 

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