|Law of the People's Republic of China on Science and Technology Progress
(Adopted at the Second Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on July 2,1993,promulgated by Order No.4 of the President of the People's Republic of china, and effective as of October 1,1993)
Order of the President of the People's Republic of China(No.4)
The Law of the People's Republic of China on Science and Technology Progress, adopted at the Second Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on July 2,1993, is hereby promulgated and shall enter into force as of October 1,1993.Chapter I General Provisions
This Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution with a view to promoting science and technology progress,assigning priority to the development of science and technology and bringing the role of science and technology as the primary productive force into full play in socialist modernization drive, so as to improve the service of science and technology to economic construction.Article 2
The State practices a basic guideline of basing economic construction and social development on science and technology and orienting science and technology undertakings to economic construction and social devel-opment. Article 3
The State shall protect the freedom of scientific re-search,encourage scientific exploration and technologi-cal innovation so as to raise its science and technology to an advanced level in the world. The State and the whole society shall respect know-ledge, esteem talent, value the creative work of scientific and technological personnel, and protect intellectual pro-perty rights.Article 4
The State shall, in compliance with the demands of scientific and technological progress and the socialist market economy, restructure and improve science and technology system, and establish a mechanism capable of effectively integrating science and technology with economy.Article 5
The State shall encourage scientific research and tech-nology development, popularize and apply the achieve-ments made in science and technology, transform traditional industries, develop high-tech industries, and enhance activities employing science and technology to serve economic construction and social development.Article 6
The State shall disseminate scientific and technologi-cal knowledge to raise the scientific and cultural level of all the citizens.
The State shall encourage government,organs,enter-prises, institutions,social organizations and citizens to participate in and support activities aimed at science and technologyprogress.Article 7
The State Council shall formulate science and tech-nology development programmes,determine majorscience and technology projects and other major projects closely related to science and technology, and secure the coordination of science and technology progress with economic construction and social development.
Opinions from scientific andtechnological workers shall be fully solicited in the course of formulating science and technology development programmes and important policies and determing major science and technology projects and major projects closelyArticle 8
related to science and technology, and a principle of scientific decision-making process shall be followed.
The administrative department in charge of science and technology under the State Council shall be respon-sible for the macroscopic management and overall coor-dination of the nation-wide science and technology work. Other administrative departments concerned un-der the State Council shall be responsible for the relevant science and technology progress work within the scope of their functions and responsibilities as prescribed by the State Council.
Local people's governments at various levels shall adopt effective measures to promote science and tech-nology progress.
The State shall render assistance to minority nation-ality regions and remote and poor areas to accelerate the development of science and technology thereof.Article 9
The Government of the people's Republic of China shall actively promote science and technology coopera-tion and exchanges with foreign governments and inter-national organizations, encourage research and devel-opment agencies, institutions of higher learning, social organizations and scientific and technical workers to establish cooperative relations of various forms with foreign science and technology circles.
Chapter ó˛ Science and Technology in Economic Construction and Social Development
TheState shall encourage research and development of new technologies, new products, new materials and new techniques, and promote activities of advancing rationali-zation proposals, and enhancing technological innovation and technical collaboration so as to steadily improve prod-uct quality, labour producitivity and economic returns, and develop thereby social productive forces.Article 11
The State shall select projects of vital significance to economic construction and sponsor related scientific research and technological development so as to acceler-ate the popularization and application of scientific and technological achievements in the production.Article 12
The State shall establish and develop technology mar-ket to promote the commercialization of scientific and technological achievements, Technology trading active-ties shall be conducted in accordance with the principles of free will, equality, mutual benefit, transaction non-gratis, honesty and credibility.Article 13
The State shall rely on scientific and technological progress to advance economic construction and social development, control population growth, enhance popu-lation quality, rationally develop and utilize resources, defense against natural calamities, and protect living conditions and ecological environment.Article 14
The State shall rely on scientific and technological progress to vitallze rural economy, promote the popular-ization and application of agricultural scientific and tech-nological achievements, and develop a modern agricul-ture of high yield, high quality, and high efficiency.Article 15
Local people's governments at or above the county level shall adopt measures to ensure that agricultural science and technology research and development organ-izations as well as demonstration and dissemination bodies shall have the right of independent management and use of their experimental bases and means of production in research, development, testing and opularization of new varieties and new technologies in agriculture.
The application and popularization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements shall be a service gratis or non-gratis in compliance with relevant laws and regulations.Article 16
Local people's governments at various levels shall en-courage and support the development of mass science and technology organizations in rural areas, and render social-ized scientific and technical services to plantation, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery before, during and after their production in a comprehensive and systematic way.Article 17
The State shall rely on scientific and technological pro-gress to develop industry, communications and transport-tation, post and telecommunications, geological prospect-ing, construction and installation, commerce and other trades, so as to enhance their economic results and social benefit.Article 18
The State shall encourage enterprises to establish and improve their technology development organizations, and also encourage them to join forces or cooperate with re-search and development institutes, and institutions of higher learning, with a view to increasing their capabilities in research and development, pilottrial, and industrial test.Article 19
Enterprises shall, in response to the demands of in-ternational and domestic markets, carry out technologi-cal transformation and equipment renewal, upgrade their scientific management level and assimilate and develop new technology so as to strengthen their market competitiveness.
Enterprises shall seek consultation and assessment services and implement industrial and technological trans-formation and importation and importation of advanced foreign technol-ogy and equipment.
Enterprises which apply new techniques to develop and produce new products may enjoy preferential treat-ment in accordance with the provisions of the State.Article 20
The State shall rely on scientific and technological progress to develop the national defense science and technology, speed up the modernization of national defense and strengthen the national defense capabilities.Article 21
The State shall encourage the application of advanced science and technology to promote the development of education, culture, public health, sports and other under-takings.
Chapter óˇ Hight-tech Research and High-techIndustries
The State shall promote research on high technology and bring into play the leading role of high technology in scientific and technological progress; the State shall foster and promote the formation and development of high-tech industries, and apply high technology to transform traditional industries, and bring into play the role of the high-tech industries in economic construc-tion.Article 23
The administrative department in charge of science and technology under the State Council and other rele-vant administrativeArticle 24
departments shall organize in the whole nation scientific and technological forces to carry out research on high technology and popularize the achievements thereof.
Hign and new technology industrial development zones shall be established upon approval by the State Council in selected areas with appropriate conditions.Article 25
Preferential policies stipulated by the State shall be applied to the enterprises and the research and devel-opment institutions engaged in the development and production of high-tech products within and without the high and new technology industrial zones, and the specific measures shall be formulated by the State Council.Article 26
The State shall encourage and guide the enterprises engaged in development, production and transaction of high-tech products to establish management systems in conformity with international norms, produce high-tech products up to international standards, and participate in global market competition so as to advance the interna-tionalization of high-tech products up to international
standards, and participate in global market competition so as to advance the interna-tionalization of high-tech industries.
Chapter ó˘ Basic Research and Applied Basic Research
The State shall ensure the continuous and steady development of basic research and applied basic re-search, and consolidate the foundation for scientific and technological progress.
Funds for basic research and applied basic research shall account for an appropriate proportion in the total funds for research and development.Article 28
The administrative department in charge of science and technology under the State Council shall arganize in a planned manner the implementation of major basic scientific research programmes in the frontier disciplines and in economic and social development.
Research and development entities, institutions of higher learning, other enterprises and institutions as well as citizens may select subjects on their own for basic research and applied basic research.Article 29
The State shall establish a Natural Science Fund to aid basic research and applied basic research in accord-ance with the principle of supporting only those with eligibility on the basis of appraisal and deliberation by experts.
TheState shall support scientific research active-ties conducted by outstanding youths, and establish a Science Fund for Youths within the Natural Science fund.Article 30
The State shall support the build-up of key laborato-ries, and set up bases for basic research and applied basic research.
The State-level key laboratories are open to both domestic and foreign researchers.
Chapter ó§ Research and Development Institutions
The State shall, in accordance with the demands of economic construction and scientific and technological progress, provide anArticle 32
overall planning and guidance for the layout of scientific and technological research and development institutions, and establish a modernized scientific and technological research and development system.
The State shall give support, in such aspects as finan-cial expenses and experimental means, to research and development institutions and institutions of high-er learning engaged in basic research and applied basic research, high-tech research, projects for tackling major scientific and technological problems, and re-search on science and technology for key social and public welfare undertakings.Article 33
The State shall encourage and guide research and development institutions engaged in technology devel-opment to develop their technological achievements in-dependently or in collaboration with other enterprises and institutions, and carry out an integrated manage-ment of technology, industy and trade, or of technology, agriculture and trade.
TheState shall encourage and guide research and development institutions engaged in scientific and tech-nical consultation, scientific and technical information services and social and public welfare undertakings to gradually carry out enterprise management or to provide services non-gratis.Article 34
Research and development institutions shall practise a system whereby the president or director takes respon-sibility.
Research and development institutions shall, in ac-cordance with the relevant regulations of the State, enjoy decision-making power in their conduct of research and development, production management, use of funds, institutional set-up and personnel recruitment.Article 35
The State shall encourage various social forces to establish research and development institutions on their own and shall protect their legitimate rights and interests against any encroachment.Article 36
Research and development institutions may, in con-formity with the law, invest and establish branches abroad.
Foreign organizations or individuals may, in accord-ance with the law, establish research and development institutions within the territory of China, and may also set up, together with Chinese research and development institutions or other organizations, Chinese-foreign equ-ity or contractual research and development institu-tions.
Chapteró÷ Scientific and Technical Workers
Scientific and technical workers constitute an impor-tant force in the socialist modernization drive.The State shall take various measures to raise the social status of scientific and technical workers, cultivate and bring up through various channels scientific and technical profess-sionals of various specialities and create favourable envi-ronments and conditions to bring the role of scientific and technical workers into full play.Article 38
People's governments at all levels, enterprises and institutions shall take measures to gradually improve the treatment given to scientific and technical workers, and better their working and living conditions; and special preferential treatment shall be granted to scientific and technical workers with outstanding contributions.Article 39
People's governments at all levels, enterprises and institutions shall create environments and conditions for the rational mobility of scientific and technical workers so as to give full play of their specialities.Article 40
Subsidies shall be granted, according to the regula-tions of the State, to scientific and technical workers engaged in basic research for major construction projects, research for tackling key scientific and technologi-cal problems, and research on science and technology for major social and public welfare, and those who work in poverty-stricken rural areas and minority nationality areas or work under adverse and dangerous conditions.Article 41
The State shall practice the system of professional and technical titles. Scientific and technical workers may obtain corresponding titles on the strength of their aca-demic levels, professional abilities and accomplishments in their work.Article 42
Scientific and technical workers shall have the right to establish or participate in, according to law, scientific and technical social bodies.
Scientific and technical social bodies shall play an active role in advancing the construction of scientific disciplines, popularizing scientific and technical know-ledge, training professional personnel, conducting con-sultation services, promoting academic exchanges, and safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of scien-tific and technical workers.Article 43
The State shall encourage overseas scientific and tech-nical workers to return to the motherland and take part in the socialist modernization drive, or serve the national construction in other ways.Article 44
Scientific and technical workers shall abide by the professional ethics, fulfill their duties and earnestly up-grade their own
scientific and technical levels.
Chapteró¸ Measures to Guarantee Science and Technology Progress
TheState shall steadily increase the overall level of financial input to science and technology, The national research and development expenditure shall account for an appropriate proportion in the gross national product, and shall be gradually increased to meet the needs of scientific and technological advances and economic and social development .The specific ratio of the national
research and development expenditure in the gross na-tional product shall be set by the State Council
The increase scale of the funding for science and technology allocated from the State financial budget shall exceed that of the regular financial revenue of the State.
No unit or individual shall misappropriate, embezzle part of, or detain the funding for science and technology allocated from the State financial budget. Article 46
The State shall encourage enterprises to increase their investment in research and development and in techno-logical innovation. The technological development ex-penditure of enterprises shall be entered into the account as cost in its actual amount.Article 47
The financial institutions of the State shall support the commercialization of scientific and technological achievements by means of credits and loans.Article 48
Research and development institutions engaged in technological development may, in accordance with rel-evant regulations of the State, raise funds for research and development from society by various ways.Article 49
The State shall encourage domestic and foreign or-ganizations or individuals to set up science funds of various kinds to finance scientific research and techno-logical development. Article 50
The competent administrative departments under the state Council and locale's governments at all levels shall take measures to promote scientific and technical information exchange and to establish modern scientific and technical information exchange and to establish modern scientific and technical information networks.Article 51
The State shall institute a science and technology security system to guard scientific and technological secrets concerning national security and interests.
The State shall strictly control the exit from the territory of precious biological species resources.
Chatper ó° Science and Technology Awards
The State shall set up a science and technology awarding system to reward citizens and organizations that have made important contributions in their activities of science and technology progress.Article 53
The State shall confer, according to law national honorary titles on citizens who have made outstanding contributions to the development of science and tech-nology.Article 54
The State Council shall set up Natural Science Prizes, Technological Invention Prizes, Science and technology Progress Prizes, International Science and Technology Cooperation Prizes, and, if necessary, other types of science and technology prizes.
The Natural Science Prizes shall be granted to citizens who have expounded certain phenomenon, traits and laws of nature and made important scientific discoveries in basic research and applied basic research.
The Technological Invention Prizes shall be granted to citizens who have made important technological in-ventions in products, processes, materials or systems by applying scientific and technological knowledge.
The Scientific and Technological Progress Prizes shall be granted to the citizens or organizations that have made outstanding contributions in the application and popularization of advanced scientific and technological achievements, the accomplishment of major scientific and technological projects, plans and programmes, and the improvement of science and technology manage-ment.
The International Science and Technology Coopera-tion Prizes shall be granted to foreign citizens or organ-izations that have made significant contributions to the cause of China's science and technology.Article 55
Enterprises and institutions shall set aside, in accord-ancewith relevant regulations of the State, a certain percentage of the newly added profit generated from the application of scientific and technological achievements to reward individuals who have complished the tech-nological achievements.Article 56
Organizations or individuals, at home or abroad, may establish science and technology award funds to reward citizens or organizations that have made remarkable contributions in their activities of scientific and techno-logical progress.
Chapter ó¨ Legal Liability
Anyone who, in violation of the State public finance administrationandfinancialmanagement system, misappropriates, Article 58
embezzles part of, or detains the funds for science and technology allocated from the State financial budget, shall be
ordered by the competent authorities at higher levels to return within a specified period of time the funds misappropriated, embezzled, and detained; and if circumstances are serious, the person held directly responsible shall be given administrative sanctions by the competent authorities at higher levels or by the unit to which he belongs.
In case of abusing power to suppress scientific and technological inventions or rationalization proposals, the person held directly responsible shall, if circumstances are serious, be given administrative sanctions.Article 59
Anyone who obtains preferential treatment or awards by resorting to fraud in the development of new tech-nologies and new products and in the declaration of scientific and technological achievements shall be de-prived of the preferential treatment or awards and be concurrently given administrative penalties or sanctions.
Persons who, taking part in appraising scientific and technological achievements, deliberately made false ap-praisal shall be given administrative sanctions by the competent authorities concerned. Article 60
Anyone who encroaches upon another person's copyright, patent right, right of discovery, right of invent-tion or right of scientific and technological achievements by means of plagiarism, alteration or imitation, or who illegally usurps technical secrets, shall be dealt with in accordance with relevant provisions of the law.
Chapter ó˙ Supplementary Provisions
The administrative department in charge of science and technology under the State Souncil and other rele-vant administrative departments shall formulate imple-menting measures in accordance with this Law, and shall submit them to the State Council for approval prior to implementation.Article 62
This Law shall enter into force as of October 1,1993.
(In case of discrepancy between the English translation and the original Chinese text, the Chinese text shall prevail. í¬Tr.)